Search ICLR 2019

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"attention models" has 39 results

Hierarchical Attention: What Really Counts in Various NLP Tasks    

tl;dr The paper proposed a novel hierarchical model to replace the original attention model in various NLP tasks.

Attention mechanisms in sequence to sequence models have shown great ability and wonderful performance in various natural language processing (NLP) tasks, such as sentence embedding, text generation, machine translation, machine reading comprehension, etc. Unfortunately, existing attention mechanisms only learn either high-level or low-level features. In this paper, we think that the lack of hierarchical mechanisms is a bottleneck in improving the performance of the attention mechanisms, and propose a novel Hierarchical Attention Mechanism (Ham) based on the weighted sum of different layers of a multi-level attention. Ham achieves a state-of-the-art BLEU score of 0.26 on Chinese poem generation task and a nearly 6.5% averaged improvement compared with the existing machine reading comprehension models such as BIDAF and Match-LSTM. Furthermore, our experiments and theorems reveal that Ham has greater generalization and representation ability than existing attention mechanisms.

Riemannian Stochastic Gradient Descent for Tensor-Train Recurrent Neural Networks    

tl;dr Applying the Riemannian SGD (RSGD) algorithm for training Tensor-Train RNNs to further reduce model parameters.

The Tensor-Train factorization (TTF) is an efficient way to compress large weight matrices of fully-connected layers and recurrent layers in recurrent neural networks (RNNs). However, high Tensor-Train ranks for all the core tensors of parameters need to be element-wise fixed, which results in an unnecessary redundancy of model parameters. This work applies Riemannian stochastic gradient descent (RSGD) to train core tensors of parameters in the Riemannian Manifold before finding vectors of lower Tensor-Train ranks for parameters. The paper first presents the RSGD algorithm with a convergence analysis and then tests it on more advanced Tensor-Train RNNs such as bi-directional GRU/LSTM and Encoder-Decoder RNNs with a Tensor-Train attention model. The experiments on digit recognition and machine translation tasks suggest the effectiveness of the RSGD algorithm for Tensor-Train RNNs.

A Biologically Inspired Visual Working Memory for Deep Networks    

tl;dr A biologically inspired working memory that can be integrated in recurrent visual attention models for state of the art performance

The ability to look multiple times through a series of pose-adjusted glimpses is fundamental to human vision. This critical faculty allows us to understand highly complex visual scenes. Short term memory plays an integral role in aggregating the information obtained from these glimpses and informing our interpretation of the scene. Computational models have attempted to address glimpsing and visual attention but have failed to incorporate the notion of memory. We introduce a novel, biologically inspired visual working memory architecture that we term the Hebb-Rosenblatt memory. We subsequently introduce a fully differentiable Short Term Attentive Working Memory model (STAWM) which uses transformational attention to learn a memory over each image it sees. The state of our Hebb-Rosenblatt memory is embedded in STAWM as the weights space of a layer. By projecting different queries through this layer we can obtain goal-oriented latent representations for tasks including classification and visual reconstruction. Our model obtains highly competitive classification performance on MNIST and CIFAR-10. As demonstrated through the CelebA dataset, to perform reconstruction the model learns to make a sequence of updates to a canvas which constitute a parts-based representation. Classification with the self supervised representation obtained from MNIST is shown to be in line with the state of the art models (none of which use a visual attention mechanism). Finally, we show that STAWM can be trained under the dual constraints of classification and reconstruction to provide an interpretable visual sketchpad which helps open the `black-box' of deep learning.

A Proposed Hierarchy of Deep Learning Tasks    

tl;dr We use 50 GPU years of compute time to study how deep learning scales with more data, and propose a new way to organize the space of problems by difficulty.

As the pace of deep learning innovation accelerates, it becomes increasingly important to organize the space of problems by relative difficultly. Looking to other fields for inspiration, we see analogies to the Chomsky Hierarchy in computational linguistics and time and space complexity in theoretical computer science. As a complement to prior theoretical work on the data and computational requirements of learning, this paper presents an empirical approach. We introduce a methodology for measuring validation error scaling with data and model size and test tasks in natural language, vision, and speech domains. We find that power-law validation error scaling exists across a breadth of factors and that model size scales sublinearly with data size, suggesting that simple learning theoretic models offer insights into the scaling behavior of realistic deep learning settings, and providing a new perspective on how to organize the space of problems. We measure the power-law exponent---the "steepness" of the learning curve---and propose using this metric to sort problems by degree of difficulty. There is no data like more data, but some tasks are more effective at taking advantage of more data. Those that are more effective are easier on the proposed scale. Using this approach, we can observe that studied tasks in speech and vision domains scale faster than those in the natural language domain, offering insight into the observation that progress in these areas has proceeded more rapidly than in natural language.

S3TA: A Soft, Spatial, Sequential, Top-Down Attention Model    


We present a soft, spatial, sequential, top-down attention model (S3TA). This model uses a soft attention mechanism to bottleneck its view of the input. A recurrent core is used to generate query vectors, which actively select information from the input by correlating the query with input- and space-dependent key maps at different spatial locations. We demonstrate the power and interpretabilty of this model under two settings. First, we build an agent which uses this attention model in RL environments and show that we can achieve performance competitive with state-of-the-art models while producing attention maps that elucidate some of the strategies used to solve the task. Second, we use this model in supervised learning tasks and show that it also achieves competitive performance and provides interpretable attention maps that show some of the underlying logic in the model's decision making.


tl;dr We propose a self-attention based GAN architecture for unconditional text generation and improve on previous adversarial code-based results.

Inspired by the success of self attention mechanism and Transformer architecture in sequence transduction and image generation applications, we propose novel self attention-based architectures to improve the performance of adversarial latent code- based schemes in text generation. Adversarial latent code-based text generation has recently gained a lot of attention due to their promising results. In this paper, we take a step to fortify the architectures used in these setups, specifically AAE and ARAE. We benchmark two latent code-based methods (AAE and ARAE) designed based on adversarial setups. In our experiments, the Google sentence compression dataset is utilized to compare our method with these methods using various objective and subjective measures. The experiments demonstrate the proposed (self) attention-based models outperform the state-of-the-art in adversarial code-based text generation.

Learning what and where to attend with humans in the loop    

tl;dr A large-scale dataset for training attention models for object recognition leads to more accurate, interpretable, and human-like object recognition.

Most recent gains in visual recognition have originated from the incorporation of attention mechanisms in deep convolutional networks (DCNs). Because these networks are optimized for object recognition, they learn where to attend using only a weak form of supervision derived from image class labels. Here, we demonstrate the benefit of using stronger supervisory signals by teaching DCNs to attend to image regions that humans deem important for object recognition. We first describe a large-scale online experiment (ClickMe) used to supplement ImageNet with nearly half a million human-derived "top-down" attention maps. Using human psychophysics, we confirm that the identified "top-down" features from ClickMe are more diagnostic than "bottom-up" features for rapid image categorization. As a proof of concept, we extend a state-of-the-art attention network and demonstrate that adding humans-in-the-loop with ClickMe supervision significantly improves its accuracy, while also yielding visual features that are more interpretable and more similar to those used by human observers.

Posterior Attention Models for Sequence to Sequence Learning    

tl;dr Computing attention based on posterior distribution leads to more meaningful attention and better performance

Modern neural architectures critically rely on attention for mapping structured inputs to sequences. In this paper we show that prevalent attention architectures do not adequately model the dependence among the attention and output variables along the length of a predicted sequence. We present an alternative architecture called Posterior Attention Models that relying on a principled factorization of the full joint distribution of the attention and output variables propose two major changes. First, the position where attention is marginalized is changed from the input to the output. Second, the attention propagated to the next decoding stage is a posterior attention distribution conditioned on the output. Empirically on five translation and two morphological inflection tasks the proposed posterior attention models yield better predictions and alignment accuracy than existing attention models.

Relational Graph Attention Networks    

tl;dr We propose a new model for relational graphs and evaluate it on relational transductive and inductive tasks.

In this paper we present Relational Graph Attention Networks, an extension of Graph Attention Networks to incorporate both node features and relational information into a masked attention mechanism, extending graph-based attention methods to a wider variety of problems, specifically, predicting the properties of molecules. We demonstrate that our attention mechanism gives competitive results on a molecular toxicity classification task (Tox21), enhancing the performance of its spectral-based convolutional equivalent. We also investigate the model on a series of transductive knowledge base completion tasks, where its performance is noticeably weaker. We provide insights as to why this may be, and suggest when it is appropriate to incorporate an attention layer into a graph architecture.

Cross-Task Knowledge Transfer for Visually-Grounded Navigation    

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Recent efforts on training visual navigation agents conditioned on language using deep reinforcement learning have been successful in learning policies for two different tasks: learning to follow navigational instructions and embodied question answering. In this paper, we aim to learn a multitask model capable of jointly learning both tasks, and transferring knowledge of words and their grounding in visual objects across tasks. The proposed model uses a novel Dual-Attention unit to disentangle the knowledge of words in the textual representations and visual objects in the visual representations, and align them with each other. This disentangled task-invariant alignment of representations facilitates grounding and knowledge transfer across both tasks. We show that the proposed model outperforms a range of baselines on both tasks in simulated 3D environments. We also show that this disentanglement of representations makes our model modular, interpretable, and allows for zero-shot transfer to instructions containing new words by leveraging object detectors.

Actor-Attention-Critic for Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning    

tl;dr We propose an approach to learn decentralized policies in multi-agent settings using attention-based critics and demonstrate promising results in environments with complex interactions.

Reinforcement learning in multi-agent scenarios is important for real-world applications but presents challenges beyond those seen in single-agent settings. We present an actor-critic algorithm that trains decentralized policies in multi-agent settings, using centrally computed critics that share an attention mechanism which selects relevant information for each agent at every timestep. This attention mechanism enables more effective and scalable learning in complex multi-agent environments, when compared to recent approaches. Our approach is applicable not only to cooperative settings with shared rewards, but also individualized reward settings, including adversarial settings, and it makes no assumptions about the action spaces of the agents. As such, it is flexible enough to be applied to most multi-agent learning problems

Doubly Reparameterized Gradient Estimators for Monte Carlo Objectives    

tl;dr Doubly reparameterized gradient estimators provide unbiased variance reduction which leads to improved performance.

Deep latent variable models have become a popular model choice due to the scalable learning algorithms introduced by (Kingma & Welling 2013, Rezende et al. 2014). These approaches maximize a variational lower bound on the intractable log likelihood of the observed data. Burda et al. (2015) introduced a multi-sample variational bound, IWAE, that is at least as tight as the standard variational lower bound and becomes increasingly tight as the number of samples increases. Counterintuitively, the typical inference network gradient estimator for the IWAE bound performs poorly as the number of samples increases (Rainforth et al. 2018, Le et al. 2018). Roeder et a. (2017) propose an improved gradient estimator, however, are unable to show it is unbiased. We show that it is in fact biased and that the bias can be estimated efficiently with a second application of the reparameterization trick. The doubly reparameterized gradient (DReG) estimator does not suffer as the number of samples increases, resolving the previously raised issues. The same idea can be used to improve many recently introduced training techniques for latent variable models. In particular, we show that this estimator reduces the variance of the IWAE gradient, the reweighted wake-sleep update (RWS) (Bornschein & Bengio 2014), and the jackknife variational inference (JVI) gradient (Nowozin 2018). Finally, we show that this computationally efficient, drop-in estimator translates to improved performance for all three objectives on several modeling tasks.

Pyramid Recurrent Neural Networks for Multi-Scale Change-Point Detection    

tl;dr We introduce a scale-invariant neural network architecture for changepoint detection in multivariate time series.

Many real-world time series, such as in activity recognition, finance, or climate science, have changepoints where the system's structure or parameters change. Detecting changes is important as they may indicate critical events. However, existing methods for changepoint detection face challenges when (1) the patterns of change cannot be modeled using simple and predefined metrics, and (2) changes can occur gradually, at multiple time-scales. To address this, we show how changepoint detection can be treated as a supervised learning problem, and propose a new deep neural network architecture that can efficiently identify both abrupt and gradual changes at multiple scales. Our proposed method, pyramid recurrent neural network (PRNN), is designed to be scale-invariant, by incorporating wavelets and pyramid analysis techniques from multi-scale signal processing. Through experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets, we show that PRNN can detect abrupt and gradual changes with higher accuracy than the state of the art and can extrapolate to detect changepoints at novel timescales that have not been seen in training.

Deep processing of structured data    

tl;dr General framework of learning representation of structured inputs.

We construct a general unified framework for learning representation of structured data, i.e. data which cannot be represented as the fixed-length vectors (e.g. sets, graphs, texts or images of varying sizes). The key factor is played by an intermediate network called SAN (Set Aggregating Network), which maps a structured object to a fixed length vector in a high dimensional latent space. Our main theoretical result shows that for sufficiently large dimension of the latent space, SAN is capable of learning a unique representation for every input example. Experiments demonstrate that replacing pooling operation by SAN in convolutional networks leads to better results in classifying images with different sizes. Moreover, its direct application to text and graph data allows to obtain results close to SOTA, by simpler networks with smaller number of parameters than competitive models.

Question Generation using a Scratchpad Encoder    

tl;dr In this paper we introduce the Scratchpad Encoder, a novel addition to the sequence to sequence (seq2seq) framework and explore its effectiveness in generating natural language questions from a given logical form.

In this paper we introduce the Scratchpad Encoder, a novel addition to the sequence to sequence (seq2seq) framework and explore its effectiveness in generating natural language questions from a given logical form. The Scratchpad encoder enables the decoder at each time step to modify all the encoder outputs, thus using the encoder as a "scratchpad" memory to keep track of what has been generated so far and to guide future generation. Experiments on a knowledge based question generation dataset show that our approach generates more fluent and expressive questions according to quantitative metrics and human judgments.

Detecting Egregious Responses in Neural Sequence-to-sequence Models    

tl;dr This paper aims to provide an empirical answer to the question of whether well-trained dialogue response model can output malicious responses.

In this work, we attempt to answer a critical question: whether there exists some input sequence that will cause a well-trained discrete-space neural network sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) model to generate egregious outputs (aggressive, malicious, attacking, etc.). And if such inputs exist, how to find them efficiently. We adopt an empirical methodology, in which we first create lists of egregious output sequences, and then design a discrete optimization algorithm to find input sequences that will cause the model to generate them. Moreover, the optimization algorithm is enhanced for large vocabulary search and constrained to search for input sequences that are likely to be input by real-world users. In our experiments, we apply this approach to dialogue response generation models trained on three real-world dialogue data-sets: Ubuntu, Switchboard and OpenSubtitles, testing whether the model can generate malicious responses. We demonstrate that given the trigger inputs our algorithm finds, a significant number of malicious sentences are assigned large probability by the model, which reveals an undesirable consequence of standard seq2seq training.

A Differentiable Self-disambiguated Sense Embedding Model via Scaled Gumbel Softmax    

tl;dr Disambiguate and embed word senses with a differentiable hard-attention model using Scaled Gumbel Softmax

We present a differentiable multi-prototype word representation model that disentangles senses of polysemous words and produces meaningful sense-specific embeddings without external resources. It jointly learns how to disambiguate senses given local context and how to represent senses using hard attention. Unlike previous multi-prototype models, our model approximates discrete sense selection in a differentiable manner via a modified Gumbel softmax. We also propose a novel human evaluation task that quantitatively measures (1) how meaningful the learned sense groups are to humans and (2) how well the model is able to disambiguate senses given a context sentence. Our model outperforms competing approaches on both human evaluations and multiple word similarity tasks.

On the Relationship between Neural Machine Translation and Word Alignment    

tl;dr It proposes methods to induce word alignment for neural machine translation (NMT) and uses them to interpret the relationship between NMT and word alignment.

Prior researches suggest that attentional neural machine translation (NMT) is able to capture word alignment by attention, however, to our surprise, it almost fails for NMT models with multiple layers except for those with a single layer. This paper proposes two methods to induce word alignment from general neural machine translation models. Experiments verify that both methods obtain much better word alignment than the method by attention. Furthermore, based on one of the proposed method, we design a criterion to divide target words into two categories (i.e. those mostly contributed from source "CFS" words and the other words mostly contributed from target "CFT" words), and analyze word alignment under these two categories in depth. We find that although NMT models are difficult to capture word alignment for CFT words but these words do not sacrifice translation quality significantly, which provides an explanation why NMT is more successful for translation yet worse for word alignment compared to statistical machine translation. We further demonstrate that word alignment errors for CFS words are responsible for translation errors in some extent by measuring the correlation between word alignment and translation for several NMT systems.

Direct Optimization through $\arg \max$ for Discrete Variational Auto-Encoder    

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Reparameterization of variational auto-encoders is an effective method for reducing the variance of their gradient estimates. However, when the latent variables are discrete, a reparameterization is problematic due to discontinuities in the discrete space. In this work, we extend the direct loss minimization technique to discrete variational auto-encoders. We first reparameterize a discrete random variable using the $\arg \max$ function of the Gumbel-Max perturbation model. We then use direct optimization to propagate gradients through the non-differentiable $\arg \max$ using two perturbed $\arg \max$ operations.

Graph Matching Networks for Learning the Similarity of Graph Structured Objects    

tl;dr We tackle the problem of similarity learning for structured objects with applications in particular in computer security, and propose a new model graph matching networks that excels on this task.

This paper addresses the challenging problem of retrieval and matching of graph structured objects, and makes two key contributions. First, we demonstrate how Graph Neural Networks (GNN), which have emerged as an effective model for various supervised prediction problems defined on structured data, can be trained to produce embedding of graphs in vector spaces that enables efficient similarity reasoning. Second, we propose a novel Graph Matching Network model that, given a pair of graphs as input, computes a similarity score between them by jointly reasoning on the pair through a new cross-graph attention-based matching mechanism. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our models on different domains including the challenging problem of control-flow-graph based function similarity search that plays an important role in the detection of vulnerabilities in software systems. The experimental analysis demonstrates that our models are not only able to exploit structure in the context of similarity learning but they can also outperform domain-specific baseline systems that have been carefully hand-engineered for these problems.

Representation Degeneration Problem in Training Natural Language Generation Models    

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We study an interesting problem in training neural network-based models for natural language generation tasks, which we call the \emph{representation degeneration problem}. We observe that when we train a model in natural language generation tasks through likelihood maximization with weight tying trick, especially with big training dataset, most of the learnt word embeddings tend to degenerate and be distributed into a narrow cone, which largely limits the representation power of word embeddings. We analyze the conditions and causes of this problem and propose a novel regularization method to address it. Experiments on language modeling and machine translation show that our method can largely mitigate the representation degeneration problem and achieve better performance than baseline algorithms.

Pay Less Attention with Lightweight and Dynamic Convolutions    

tl;dr Dynamic lightweight convolutions are competitive to self-attention on language tasks.

Self-attention is a useful mechanism to build generative models for language and images. It determines the importance of context elements by comparing each element to the current time step. In this paper, we show that a very lightweight convolution can perform competitively to the best reported self-attention results. Next, we introduce dynamic convolutions which are simpler and more efficient than self-attention. We predict separate convolution kernels based solely on the current time-step in order to determine the importance of context elements. The number of operations required by this approach scales linearly in the input length, whereas self-attention is quadratic. Experiments on large-scale machine translation, language modeling and abstractive summarization show that dynamic convolutions improve over strong self-attention models. On the WMT'14 English-German test set dynamic convolutions achieve a new state of the art of 29.7 BLEU.

Approximating CNNs with Bag-of-local-Features models works surprisingly well on ImageNet    

tl;dr Aggregating class evidence from many small image patches suffices to solve ImageNet, yields more interpretable models and can explain aspects of the decision-making of popular DNNs.

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) excel on many complex perceptual tasks but it has proven notoriously difficult to understand how they reach their decisions. We here introduce a high-performance DNN architecture on ImageNet whose decisions are considerably easier to explain. Our model, a simple variant of the ResNet-50 architecture called BagNet, classifies an image based on the occurrences of small local image features without taking into account their spatial ordering. This strategy is closely related to the bag-of-feature (BoF) models popular before the onset of deep learning and reaches a surprisingly high accuracy on ImageNet (87.6% top-5 for 32 x32 px features and Alexnet performance for 16 x 16 px features). The constraint on local features makes it straight-forward to analyse how exactly each feature of the image influences the classification. Furthermore, the BagNets behave similar to state-of-the art deep neural networks such as VGG-16, ResNet-152 or DenseNet-169 in terms of feature sensitivity, error distribution and interactions between image parts, suggesting that modern DNNs approximately follow a similar bag-of-feature strategy.


tl;dr We introduce a new PixelCNN-based auto-regressive generation approach that enhances the generation time by skimming the pixels.

Pixel convolutional neural network (PixelCNN) has provided promising results in image generation. However, it requires heavy computation time for inference, which deters its use in practice. Here, we propose a new generation method based on PixelCNN, dubbed Skim-PixelCNN that remarkably reduces inference time by skimming easy pixels. On top of a vanilla PixelCNN, we introduce two main components: an efficient generator that generates a set of next pixels in one shot and a confidence estimator that measures the confidence of the generated pixels. Based on the confidence, our model decides whether it skims or redraw the pixel using the vanilla PixelCNN. From the quantitative and qualitative experiments on diverse public image datasets, we show that our method can significantly reduce the computational overhead while its generation performance is comparable to or even improved that of the vanilla PixelCNN.

Neural Networks for Modeling Source Code Edits    

tl;dr Neural networks for source code that model changes being made to the code-base rather than static snapshots of code.

Programming languages are emerging as a challenging and interesting domain for machine learning. A core task, which has received significant attention in recent years, is building generative models of source code. However, to our knowledge, previous generative models have always been framed in terms of generating static snapshots of code. In this work, we instead treat source code as a dynamic object and tackle the problem of modeling the edits that software developers make to source code files. This requires extracting intent from previous edits and leveraging it to generate subsequent edits. We develop several neural networks and use synthetic data to test their ability to learn challenging edit patterns that require strong generalization. We then collect and train our models on a large-scale dataset consisting of millions of fine-grained edits from thousands of Python developers.

Amortized Context Vector Inference for Sequence-to-Sequence Networks    

tl;dr A generalisation of context representation in neural attention under the variational inference rationale.

Neural attention (NA) is an effective mechanism for inferring complex structural data dependencies that span long temporal horizons. As a consequence, it has become a key component of sequence-to-sequence models that yield state-of-the-art performance in as hard tasks as abstractive document summarization (ADS), machine translation (MT), and video captioning (VC). NA mechanisms perform inference of context vectors; these constitute weighted sums of deterministic input sequence encodings, adaptively sourced over long temporal horizons. However, recent work in the field of amortized variational inference (AVI) has shown that it is often useful to treat the representations generated by deep networks as latent random variables. This allows for the models to learn to infer representations that offer much stronger generalization capacity. Based on this motivation, in this work we introduce a novel regard towards a popular NA mechanism, namely soft-attention (SA). Our approach treats the context vectors generated by SA models as latent variables, the finite mixture model posteriors of which are inferred by employing AVI. Both the component means and the covariance matrices of the inferred posteriors are parameterized via deep network mechanisms similar to those employed in the context of standard SA. To illustrate our method, we implement it in the context of popular sequence-to-sequence model variants with SA. We conduct an extensive experimental evaluation using challenging ADS, VC, and MT benchmarks, and show how our approach compares to the baselines.

Coarse-grain Fine-grain Coattention Network for Multi-evidence Question Answering    

tl;dr A new state-of-the-art model for multi-evidence question answering using coarse-grain fine-grain hierarchical attention.

End-to-end neural models have made significant progress in question answering, however recent studies show that these models implicitly assume the answer and evidence appear close together in a single document. In this work, we propose the Coarse-grain Fine-grain Coattention Network (CFC), a new question answering model that combines information from evidence across multiple documents. The CFC consists of a coarse-grain module that interprets documents with respect to the query then finds a relevant answer, and a fine-grain module which scores each candidate answer by comparing its occurrences across all of the documents with the query. We implement these modules using hierarchies of coattention and self-attention, which learn to emphasize different parts of the input. On the Qangaroo WikiHop multi-evidence question answering task, the CFC obtains a new state-of-the-art result of 70.6% on the blind test set, outperforming the previous best by 3% accuracy despite not using pretrained contextual encoders.

Learning Representations of Categorical Feature Combinations via Self-Attention    

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Self-attention has been widely used to model the sequential data and achieved remarkable results in many applications. Although it can be used to model dependencies without regard to positions of sequences, self-attention is seldom applied to non-sequential data. In this work, we propose to learn representations of multi-field categorical data in prediction tasks via self-attention mechanism, where features are orderless but have intrinsic relations over different fields. In most current DNN based models, feature embeddings are simply concatenated for further processing by networks. Instead, by applying self-attention to transform the embeddings, we are able to relate features in different fields and automatically learn representations of their combinations, which are known as the factors of many prevailing linear models. To further improve the effect of feature combination mining, we modify the original self-attention structure by restricting the similarity weight to have at most k non-zero values, which additionally regularizes the model. We experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of our self-attention model on non-sequential data. Across two click through rate prediction benchmark datasets, i.e., Cretio and Avazu, our model with top-k restricted self-attention achieves the state-of-the-art performance. Compared with the vanilla MLP, the gain by adding self-attention is significantly larger than that by modifying the network structures, which most current works focus on.

Phrase-Based Attentions    

tl;dr Phrase-based attention mechanisms to assign attention on phrases, achieving token-to-phrase, phrase-to-token, phrase-to-phrase attention alignments, in addition to existing token-to-token attentions.

Most state-of-the-art neural machine translation systems, despite being different in architectural skeletons (e.g., recurrence, convolutional), share an indispensable feature: the Attention. However, most existing attention methods are token-based and ignore the importance of phrasal alignments, the key ingredient for the success of phrase-based statistical machine translation. In this paper, we propose novel phrase-based attention methods to model n-grams of tokens as attention entities. We incorporate our phrase-based attentions into the recently proposed Transformer network, and demonstrate that our approach yields improvements of 1.3 BLEU for English-to-German and 0.5 BLEU for German-to-English translation tasks on WMT newstest2014 using WMT’16 training data.

GLUE: A Multi-Task Benchmark and Analysis Platform for Natural Language Understanding    

tl;dr We present a multi-task benchmark and analysis platform for evaluating generalization in natural language understanding systems.

For natural language understanding (NLU) technology to be maximally useful, it must be able to process language in a way that is not exclusive to a single task, genre, or dataset. In pursuit of this objective, we introduce the General Language Understanding Evaluation (GLUE) benchmark, a collection of tools for evaluating the performance of models across a diverse set of existing NLU tasks. By including tasks with limited training data, GLUE is designed to favor and encourage models that share general linguistic knowledge across tasks. GLUE also includes a hand-crafted diagnostic test suite that enables detailed linguistic analysis of models. We evaluate baselines based on current methods for transfer and representation learning and find that multi-task training on all tasks performs better than training a separate model per task. However, the low absolute performance of our best model indicates the need for improved general NLU systems.

Optimal Completion Distillation for Sequence Learning    

tl;dr Optimal Completion Distillation (OCD) is a training procedure for optimizing sequence to sequence models based on edit distance which achieves state-of-the-art on end-to-end Speech Recognition tasks.

We present Optimal Completion Distillation (OCD), a training procedure for optimizing sequence to sequence models based on edit distance. OCD is efficient, has no hyper-parameters of its own, and does not require pre-training or joint optimization with conditional log-likelihood. Given a partial sequence generated by the model, we first identify the set of optimal suffixes that minimize the total edit distance, using an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. Then, for each position of the generated sequence, we use a target distribution which puts equal probability on the first token of all the optimal suffixes. OCD achieves the state-of-the-art performance on end-to-end speech recognition, on both Wall Street Journal and Librispeech datasets, achieving $9.3\%$ WER and $4.8\%$ WER, respectively.

Learning to Refer to 3D Objects with Natural Language    

tl;dr How to build neural-speakers/listeners that learn fine-grained characteristics of 3D objects, from referential language.

Human world knowledge is both structured and flexible. When people see an object, they represent it not as a pixel array but as a meaningful arrangement of semantic parts. Moreover, when people refer to an object, they provide descriptions that are not merely true but also relevant in the current context. Here, we combine these two observations in order to learn fine-grained correspondences between language and contextually relevant geometric properties of 3D objects. To do this, we employed an interactive communication task with human participants to construct a large dataset containing natural utterances referring to 3D objects from ShapeNet in a wide variety of contexts. Using this dataset, we developed neural listener and speaker models with strong capacity for generalization. By performing targeted lesions of visual and linguistic input, we discovered that the neural listener depends heavily on part-related words and associates these words correctly with the corresponding geometric properties of objects, suggesting that it has learned task-relevant structure linking the two input modalities. We further show that a neural speaker that is `listener-aware' --- that plans its utterances according to how an imagined listener would interpret its words in context --- produces more discriminative referring expressions than an `listener-unaware' speaker, as measured by human performance in identifying the correct object.


tl;dr improving deep transfer learning with regularization using attention based feature maps

Transfer learning through fine-tuning a pre-trained neural network with an extremely large dataset, such as ImageNet, can significantly accel- erate training while the accuracy is frequently bottlenecked by the lim- ited dataset size of the new target task. To solve the problem, some regularization methods, constraining the outer layer weights of the tar- get network using the starting point as references (SPAR), have been studied. In this paper, we propose a novel regularized transfer learn- ing framework DELTA, namely DEep Learning Transfer using Fea- ture Map with Attention. Instead of constraining the weights of neu- ral network, DELTA aims to preserve the outer layer outputs of the target network. Specifically, in addition to minimizing the empirical loss, DELTA intends to align the outer layer outputs of two networks, through constraining a subset of feature maps that are precisely selected by attention that has been learned in an supervised learning manner. We evaluate DELTA with the state-of-the-art algorithms, including L2 and L2-SP. The experiment results show that our proposed method outper- forms these baselines with higher accuracy for new tasks.

Learning Corresponded Rationales for Text Matching    

tl;dr We propose a novel self-explaining architecture to predict matches between two sequences of texts. Specifically, we introduce the notion of corresponded rationales and learn to extract them by the distal supervision from the downstream task.

The ability to predict matches between two sources of text has a number of applications including natural language inference (NLI) and question answering (QA). While flexible neural models have become effective tools in solving these tasks, they are rarely transparent in terms of the mechanism that mediates the prediction. In this paper, we propose a self-explaining architecture where the model is forced to highlight, in a dependent manner, how spans of one side of the input match corresponding segments of the other side in order to arrive at the overall decision. The text spans are regularized to be coherent and concise, and their correspondence is captured explicitly. The text spans -- rationales -- are learned entirely as latent mechanisms, guided only by the distal supervision from the end-to-end task. We evaluate our model on both NLI and QA using three publicly available datasets. Experimental results demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively that our method delivers interpretable justification of the prediction without sacrificing state-of-the-art performance. Our code and data split will be publicly available.

The Case for Full-Matrix Adaptive Regularization    

tl;dr fast, truly scalable full-matrix AdaGrad/Adam, with theory for adaptive stochastic non-convex optimization

Adaptive regularization methods pre-multiply a descent direction by a preconditioning matrix. Due to the large number of parameters of machine learning problems, full-matrix preconditioning methods are prohibitively expensive. We show how to modify full-matrix adaptive regularization in order to make it practical and effective. We also provide novel theoretical analysis for adaptive regularization in non-convex optimization settings. The core of our algorithm, termed GGT, consists of efficient inverse computation of square roots of low-rank matrices. Our preliminary experiments underscore improved convergence rate of GGT across a variety of synthetic tasks and standard deep learning benchmarks.

Learning models for visual 3D localization with implicit mapping    

tl;dr We propose a generative approach based on Generative Query Networks + attention for localization with implicit mapping, and compare to a discriminative baseline with a similar architecture.

We consider learning based methods for visual localization that do not require the construction of explicit maps in the form of point clouds or voxels. The goal is to learn an implicit representation of the environment at a higher, more abstract level, for instance that of objects. We propose to use a generative approach based on Generative Query Networks (GQNs, Eslami et al. 2018), asking the following questions: 1) Can GQN capture more complex scenes than those it was originally demonstrated on? 2) Can GQN be used for localization in those scenes? To study this approach we consider procedurally generated Minecraft worlds, for which we can generate images of complex 3D scenes along with camera pose coordinates. We first show that GQNs, enhanced with a novel attention mechanism can capture the structure of 3D scenes in Minecraft, as evidenced by their samples. We then apply the models to the localization problem, comparing the results to a discriminative baseline, and comparing the ways each approach captures the task uncertainty.

Sample Efficient Adaptive Text-to-Speech    

tl;dr Sample efficient algorithms to adapt a text-to-speech model to a new voice style with the state-of-the-art performance.

We present a meta-learning approach for adaptive text-to-speech (TTS) with few data. During training, we learn a multi-speaker model using a shared conditional WaveNet core and independent learned embeddings for each speaker. The aim of training is not to produce a neural network with fixed weights, which is then deployed as a TTS system. Instead, the aim is to produce a network that requires few data at deployment time to rapidly adapt to new speakers. We introduce and benchmark three strategies: (i) learning the speaker embedding while keeping the WaveNet core fixed, (ii) fine-tuning the entire architecture with stochastic gradient descent, and (iii) predicting the speaker embedding with a trained neural network encoder. The experiments show that these approaches are successful at adapting the multi-speaker neural network to new speakers, obtaining state-of-the-art results in both sample naturalness and voice similarity with merely a few minutes of audio data from new speakers.


tl;dr We propose a model that employs feature prioritization and regularization to improve the adversarial robustness and the standard accuracy.

Adversarial training has been successfully applied to build robust models at a certain cost. While the robustness of a model increases, the standard classification accuracy declines. This phenomenon is suggested to be an inherent trade-off between standard accuracy and robustness. We propose a model that employs feature prioritization by a nonlinear attention module and L2 regularization as implicit denoising to improve the adversarial robustness and the standard accuracy relative to adversarial training. Focusing sharply on the regions of interest, the attention maps encourage the model to rely heavily on features extracted from the most relevant areas while suppressing the unrelated background. Penalized by a regularizer, the model extracts similar features for the natural and adversarial images, effectively ignoring the added perturbation. In addition to qualitative evaluation, we also propose a novel experimental strategy that quantitatively demonstrates that our model is almost ideally aligned with salient data characteristics. Additional experimental results illustrate the power of our model relative to the state of the art methods

Language Modeling Teaches You More Syntax than Translation Does: Lessons Learned Through Auxiliary Task Analysis    

tl;dr We throughly compare several pretraining tasks on their ability to induce syntactic information and find that representations from language models consistently perform best, even when trained on relatively small amounts of data.

Recent work using auxiliary prediction task classifiers to investigate the properties of LSTM representations has begun to shed light on why pretrained representations, like ELMo (Peters et al., 2018) and CoVe (McCann et al., 2017), are so beneficial for neural language understanding models. We still, though, do not yet have a clear understanding of how the choice of pretraining objective affects the type of linguistic information that models learn. With this in mind, we compare four objectives - language modeling, translation, skip-thought, and autoencoding - on their ability to induce syntactic and part-of-speech information. We make a fair comparison between the tasks by holding constant the quantity and genre of the training data, as well as the LSTM architecture. We find that representations from language models consistently perform best on our syntactic auxiliary prediction tasks, even when trained on relatively small amounts of data. These results suggest that language modeling may be the best data-rich pretraining task for transfer learning applications requiring syntactic information. We also find that the representations from randomly-initialized, frozen LSTMs perform strikingly well on our syntactic auxiliary tasks, but this effect disappears when the amount of training data for the auxiliary tasks is reduced.