Search ICLR 2019

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"curiosity-driven" has 42 results


Explicit Recall for Efficient Exploration    

tl;dr We advocate the use of explicit memory for efficient exploration in reinforcement learning

In this paper, we advocate the use of explicit memory for efficient exploration in reinforcement learning. This memory records structured trajectories that have led to interesting states in the past, and can be used by the agent to revisit those states more effectively. In high-dimensional decision making problems, where deep reinforcement learning is considered crucial, our approach provides a simple, transparent and effective way that can be naturally combined with complex, deep learning models. We show how such explicit memory may be used to enhance existing exploration algorithms such as intrinsically motivated ones and count-based ones, and demonstrate our method's advantages in various simulated environments.


Object-Contrastive Networks: Unsupervised Object Representations    

tl;dr An unsupervised approach for learning disentangled representations of objects entirely from unlabeled monocular videos.

Discovering objects and their attributes is of great importance for autonomous agents to effectively operate in human environments. This task is particularly challenging due to the ubiquitousness of objects and all their nuances in perceptual and semantic detail. In this paper we present an unsupervised approach for learning disentangled representations of objects entirely from unlabeled monocular videos. These continuous representations are not biased by or limited by a discrete set of labels determined by human labelers. The proposed representation is trained with a metric learning loss, where objects with homogeneous features are pushed together, while those with heterogeneous features are pulled apart. We show these unsupervised embeddings allow to discover object attributes and can enable robots to self-supervise in previously unseen environments. We quantitatively evaluate performance on a large-scale synthetic dataset with 12k object models, as well as on a real dataset collected by a robot and show that our unsupervised object understanding generalizes to previously unseen objects. Specifically, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on robotic manipulation tasks, such as pointing at and grasping of objects. An interesting and perhaps surprising finding in this approach is that given a limited set of objects, object correspondences will naturally emerge when using metric learning without requiring explicit positive pairs.


Intrinsic Social Motivation via Causal Influence in Multi-Agent RL    

tl;dr We reward agents for having a causal influence on the actions of other agents, and show that this gives rise to better cooperation and more meaningful emergent communication protocols.

We derive a new intrinsic social motivation for multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL), in which agents are rewarded for having causal influence over another agent's actions, where causal influence is assessed using counterfactual reasoning. The reward does not depend on observing another agent's reward function, and is thus a more realistic approach to MARL than taken in previous work. We show that the causal influence reward is related to maximizing the mutual information between agents' actions. We test the approach in challenging social dilemma environments, where it consistently leads to enhanced cooperation between agents and higher collective reward. Moreover, we find that rewarding influence can lead agents to develop emergent communication protocols. Therefore, we also employ influence to train agents to use an explicit communication channel, and find that it leads to more effective communication and higher collective reward. Finally, we show that influence can be computed by equipping each agent with an internal model that predicts the actions of other agents. This allows the social influence reward to be computed without the use of a centralised controller, and as such represents a significantly more general and scalable inductive bias for MARL with independent agents.


Unsupervised Exploration with Deep Model-Based Reinforcement Learning    

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Reinforcement learning (RL) often requires large numbers of trials to solve a single specific task. This is in sharp contrast to human and animal learning: humans and animals can use past experience to acquire an understanding about the world, which they can then use to perform new tasks with minimal additional learning. In this work, we study how an unsupervised exploration phase can be used to build up such prior knowledge, which can then be utilized in a second phase to perform new tasks, either directly without any additional exploration, or through minimal fine-tuning. A critical question with this approach is: what kind of knowledge should be transferred from the unsupervised phase to the goal-directed phase? We argue that model-based RL offers an appealing solution. By transferring models, which are task-agnostic, we can perform new tasks without any additional learning at all. However, this relies on having a suitable exploration method during unsupervised training, and a model-based RL method that can effectively utilize modern high-capacity parametric function classes, such as deep neural networks. We show that both challenges can be addressed by representing model-uncertainty, which can both guide exploration in the unsupervised phase and ensure that the errors in the model are not exploited by the planner in the goal-directed phase. We illustrate, on simple simulated benchmark tasks, that our method can perform various goal-directed skills on the first attempt, and can improve further with fine-tuning, exceeding the performance of alternative exploration methods.


Successor Uncertainties: exploration and uncertainty in temporal difference learning    

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We consider the problem of balancing exploration and exploitation in sequential decision making problems. To explore efficiently, it is vital to consider the uncertainty over all consequences of a decision, and not just those that follow immediately; the uncertainties need to be propagated according to the dynamics of the problem. To this end, we develop Successor Uncertainties, a probabilistic model for the state-action function of a Markov Decision Process that propagates uncertainties in a coherent and scalable way. Our model achieves this by combining successor features and online Bayesian uncertainty estimation. We relate our approach to other classical and contemporary methods for exploration and present an empirical analysis of successor uncertainties.


Object-Oriented Model Learning through Multi-Level Abstraction    

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Object-based approaches for learning action-conditioned dynamics has demonstrated promise of strong generalization and interpretability. However, existing approaches suffer from structural limitations and optimization difficulties for common environments with multiple dynamic objects. In this paper, we present a novel self-supervised learning framework, called Multi-level Abstraction Object-oriented Predictor (MAOP), for learning object-based dynamics models from raw visual observations. MAOP employs three-level learning archicture that enables efficient dynamics learning for complex environments with a dynamic background. We also design a spatial-temporal relational reasoning mechanism to support instance-level dynamics learning and handle partial observability. Empirical results show that MAOP significantly outperforms previous methods in terms of sample efficiency and generalization over novel environments that have multiple controllable and uncontrollable dynamic objects and different static object layouts. In addition, MAOP learns semantically and visually interpretable disentangled representations.


COLLABORATIVE MULTIAGENT REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN HOMOGENEOUS SWARMS    

tl;dr Novel policy gradient for multiagent systems via distributed learning.

A deep reinforcement learning solution is developed for a collaborative multiagent system. Individual agents choose actions in response to the state of the environment, their own state, and possibly partial information about the state of other agents. Actions are chosen to maximize a collaborative long term discounted reward that encompasses the individual rewards collected by each agent. The paper focuses on developing a scalable approach that applies to large swarms of homogeneous agents. This is accomplished by forcing the policies of all agents to be the same resulting in a constrained formulation in which the experiences of each agent inform the learning process of the whole team, thereby enhancing the sample efficiency of the learning process. A projected coordinate policy gradient descent algorithm is derived to solve the constrained reinforcement learning problem. Experimental evaluations in collaborative navigation, a multi-predator-multi-prey game, and a multiagent survival game show marked improvements relative to methods that do not exploit the policy equivalence that naturally arises in homogeneous swarms.


Plan Online, Learn Offline: Efficient Learning and Exploration via Model-Based Control    

tl;dr We propose a framework that incorporates planning for efficient exploration and learning in complex environments.

We propose a plan online and learn offline framework for the setting where an agent with an internal model needs to continually act and learn in the world. Our work builds on the synergistic relationship between local trajectory optimization, global value function learning, and exploration. We study how trajectory optimization can cope with approximation errors in the value function, and can stabilize and accelerate value function learning. Conversely, we also study how approximate value functions can help reduce the planning horizon and allow for better policies beyond local solutions. Finally, we also demonstrate how trajectory optimization can be used to perform temporally coordinated exploration in conjunction with estimating uncertainty in value function approximation. Combining these components enable solutions to complex complex control tasks like humanoid locomotion and dexterous in-hand manipulation in the equivalent of a few minutes of experience in the real world.


POLICY GENERALIZATION IN CAPACITY-LIMITED REINFORCEMENT LEARNING    

tl;dr This paper describes the application of rate-distortion theory to the learning of efficient (capacity limited) policy representations in the reinforcement learning setting.

Motivated by the study of generalization in biological intelligence, we examine reinforcement learning (RL) in settings where there are information-theoretic constraints placed on the learner’s ability to represent a behavioral policy. We first show that the problem of optimizing expected utility within capacity-limited learning agents maps naturally to the mathematical field of rate-distortion (RD) theory. Applying the RD framework to the RL setting, we develop a new online RL algorithm, Capacity-Limited Actor-Critic, that learns a policy that optimizes a tradeoff between utility maximization and information processing costs. Using this algorithm in a 2D gridworld environment, we demonstrate two novel empirical results. First, at high information rates (high channel capacity), the algorithm achieves faster learning and discovers better policies compared to the standard tabular actor-critic algorithm. Second, we demonstrate that agents with capacity-limited policy representations exhibit superior transfer to novel environments compared to policies learned by agents with unlimited information processing resources. Our work provides a principled framework for the development of computationally rational RL agents.


Unsupervised Meta-Learning for Reinforcement Learning    

tl;dr Remove the burden of task distribution specification in meta-reinforcement learning by using unsupervised exploration

Meta-learning is a powerful tool that learns how to quickly adapt a model to new tasks. In the context of reinforcement learning, meta-learning algorithms can acquire reinforcement learning procedures to solve new problems more efficiently by meta-learning prior tasks. The performance of meta-learning algorithms critically depends on the tasks available for meta-training: in the same way that supervised learning algorithms generalize best to test points drawn from the same distribution as the training points, meta-learning methods generalize best to tasks from the same distribution as the meta-training tasks. In effect, meta-reinforcement learning offloads the design burden from algorithm design to task design. If we can automate the process of task design as well, we can devise a meta-learning algorithm that is truly automated. In this work, we take a step in this direction, proposing a family of unsupervised meta-learning algorithms for reinforcement learning. We describe a general recipe for unsupervised meta-reinforcement learning, and describe an effective instantiation of this approach based on a recently proposed unsupervised exploration technique and model-agnostic meta-learning. We also discuss practical and conceptual considerations for developing unsupervised meta-learning methods. Our experimental results demonstrate that unsupervised meta-reinforcement learning effectively acquires accelerated reinforcement learning procedures without the need for manual task design, significantly exceeds the performance of learning from scratch, and even matches performance of meta-learning methods that use hand-specified task distributions.


Transfer Value or Policy? A Value-centric Framework Towards Transferrable Continuous Reinforcement Learning    

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Transferring learned knowledge from one environment to another is an important step towards practical reinforcement learning (RL). In this paper, we investigate the problem of transfer learning across environments with different dynamics while accomplishing the same task in the continuous control domain. We start by illustrating the limitations of policy-centric methods (policy gradient, actor- critic, etc.) when transferring knowledge across environments. We then propose a general model-based value-centric (MVC) framework for continuous RL. MVC learns a dynamics approximator and a value approximator simultaneously in the source domain, and makes decision based on both of them. We evaluate MVC against popular baselines on 5 benchmark control tasks in a training from scratch setting and a transfer learning setting. Our experiments demonstrate MVC achieves comparable performance with the baselines when it is trained from scratch, while it significantly surpasses them when it is used in the transfer setting.


Exploration by random distillation    

tl;dr A simple exploration bonus is introduced and achieves state of the art performance in 3 hard exploration Atari games.

We introduce an exploration bonus for deep reinforcement learning methods that is easy to implement and adds minimal overhead to the computation performed. The bonus is the error of a neural network predicting features of the observations given by a fixed randomly initialized neural network. We also introduce a method to flexibly combine intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. We find that the random network distillation (RND) bonus combined with this increased flexibility enables significant progress on several hard exploration Atari games. In particular we establish state of the art performance on Montezuma's Revenge, a game famously difficult for deep reinforcement learning methods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method that achieves better than average human performance on this game without using demonstrations or having access the underlying state of the game, and occasionally completes the first level. This suggests that relatively simple methods that scale well can be sufficient to tackle challenging exploration problems.


The Laplacian in RL: Learning Representations with Efficient Approximations    

tl;dr We propose a scalable method to approximate the eigenvectors of the Laplacian in the reinforcement learning context and we show that the learned representations can improve the performance of an RL agent.

The smallest eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian are well-known to provide a succinct representation of the geometry of a weighted graph. In reinforcement learning (RL), where the weighted graph may be interpreted as the state transition process induced by a behavior policy acting on the environment, approximating the eigenvectors of the Laplacian provides a promising approach to state representation learning. However, existing methods for performing this approximation are ill-suited in general RL settings for two main reasons: First, they are computationally expensive, often requiring operations on large matrices. Second, these methods lack adequate justification beyond simple, tabular, finite-state settings. In this paper, we present a fully general and scalable method for approximating the eigenvectors of the Laplacian in a model-free RL context. We systematically evaluate our approach and empirically show that it generalizes beyond the tabular, finite-state setting. Even in tabular, finite-state settings, its ability to approximate the eigenvectors outperforms previous proposals. Finally, we show the potential benefits of using a Laplacian representation learned using our method in goal-achieving RL tasks, providing evidence that our technique can be used to significantly improve the performance of an RL agent.


Expressiveness in Deep Reinforcement Learning    

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Representation learning in reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms focuses on extracting useful features for choosing good actions. Expressive representations are essential for learning well-performed policies. In this paper, we study the relationship between the state representation assigned by the state extractor and the performance of the RL agent. We observe that representations assigned by the better state extractor are more scattered than which assigned by the worse one. Moreover, RL agents achieving high performances always have high rank matrices which are composed by their representations. Based on our observations, we formally define expressiveness of the state extractor as the rank of the matrix composed by representations. Therefore, we propose to promote expressiveness so as to improve algorithm performances, and we call it Expressiveness Promoted DRL. We apply our method on both policy gradient and value-based algorithms, and experimental results on 55 Atari games show the superiority of our proposed method.


Decoupling feature extraction from policy learning: assessing benefits of state representation learning in goal based robotics    

tl;dr We evaluate the benefits of decoupling feature extraction from policy learning in robotics and propose a new way of combining state representation learning methods.

Scaling end-to-end reinforcement learning to control real robots from vision presents a series of challenges, in particular in terms of sample efficiency. Against end-to-end learning, state representation learning can help learn a compact, efficient and relevant representation of states that speeds up policy learning, reducing the number of samples needed, and that is easier to interpret. We evaluate several state representation learning methods on goal based robotics tasks and propose a new unsupervised model that stacks representations and combines strengths of several of these approaches. This method encodes all the relevant features, performs on par or better than end-to-end learning, and is robust to hyper-parameters change.


Soft Q-Learning with Mutual-Information Regularization    

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We propose a reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm that uses mutual-information regularization to optimize the prior action distribution for better performance and exploration. Entropy-based regularization has previously been shown to improve both exploration and robustness in challenging sequential decision-making tasks. It does so by encouraging policies to put probability mass on all actions. However, entropy regularization might be undesirable when actions have significantly different importance. In this paper, we propose a theoretically motivated framework that dynamically weights the importance of actions by using the mutual-information. In particular, we express the RL problem as an inference problem where the prior probability distribution over actions is subject to optimization. We show that the prior optimization introduces a mutual-information regularizer in the RL objective. This regularizer encourages the policy to be close to a non-uniform distribution that assigns higher probability mass to more important actions. We empirically demonstrate that our method significantly improves over entropy regularization methods, attaining state-of-the-art performance.


Learning Actionable Representations with Goal Conditioned Policies    

tl;dr Learning state representations which capture factors necessary for control

Representation learning is a central challenge across a range of machine learning areas. In reinforcement learning, effective and functional representations have the potential to tremendously accelerate learning progress and solve more challenging problems. Most prior work on representation learning has focused on generative approaches, learning representations that capture all the underlying factors of variation in the observation space in a more disentangled or well-ordered manner. In this paper, we instead aim to learn functionally salient representations: representations that are not necessarily complete in terms of capturing all factors of variation in the observation space, but rather aim to capture those factors of variation that are important for decision making -- that are "actionable". These representations are aware of the dynamics of the environment, and capture only the elements of the observation that are necessary for decision making rather than all factors of variation, eliminating the need for explicit reconstruction. We show how these learned representations can be useful to improve exploration for sparse reward problems, to enable long horizon hierarchical reinforcement learning, and as a state representation for learning policies for downstream tasks. We evaluate our method on a number of simulated environments, and compare it to prior methods for representation learning, exploration, and hierarchical reinforcement learning.


EMI: Exploration with Mutual Information Maximizing State and Action Embeddings    

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Policy optimization struggles when the reward feedback signal is very sparse and essentially becomes a random search algorithm until the agent stumbles upon a rewarding or the goal state. Recent works utilize intrinsic motivation to guide the exploration via generative models, predictive forward models, or more ad-hoc measures of surprise. We propose EMI, which is an exploration method that constructs embedding representation of states and actions that does not rely on generative decoding of the full observation but extracts predictive signals that can be used to guide exploration based on forward prediction in the representation space. Our experiments show the state of the art performance on challenging locomotion task with continuous control and on image-based exploration tasks with discrete actions on Atari.


Contingency-Aware Exploration in Reinforcement Learning    

tl;dr We investigate contingency-awareness and controllable aspects in exploration and achieve state-of-the-art performance on Montezuma's Revenge without expert demonstrations.

This paper investigates whether learning contingency-awareness and controllable aspects of an environment can lead to better exploration in reinforcement learning. To investigate this question, we consider an instantiation of this hypothesis evaluated on the Arcade Learning Element (ALE). In this study, we develop an attentive dynamics model (ADM) that discovers controllable elements of the observations, which are often associated with the location of the character in Atari games. The ADM is trained in a self-supervised fashion to predict the actions taken by the agent. The learned contingency information is used as a part of the state representation for exploration purposes. We demonstrate that combining A2C with count-based exploration using our representation achieves impressive results on a set of notoriously challenging Atari games due to sparse rewards. For example, we report a state-of-the-art score of >6600 points on Montezuma's Revenge without using expert demonstrations, explicit high-level information (e.g. RAM states), or supervised data. Our experiments confirm our hypothesis that contingency-awareness is an extremely powerful concept for tackling exploration problems in reinforcement learning and opens up interesting research questions for further investigation.


Adversarial Exploration Strategy for Self-Supervised Imitation Learning    

tl;dr A simple yet effective imitation learning scheme that incentivizes exploration of an environment without any extrinsic reward or human demonstration.

We present an adversarial exploration strategy, a simple yet effective imitation learning scheme that incentivizes exploration of an environment without any extrinsic reward or human demonstration. Our framework consists of a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agent and an inverse dynamics model contesting with each other. The former collects training samples for the latter, and its objective is to maximize the error of the latter. The latter is trained with samples collected by the former, and generates rewards for the former when it fails to predict the actual action taken by the former. In such a competitive setting, the DRL agent learns to generate samples that the inverse dynamics model fails to predict correctly, and the inverse dynamics model learns to adapt to the challenging samples. We further propose a reward structure that ensures the DRL agent collects only moderately hard samples and not overly hard ones that prevent the inverse model from imitating effectively. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method on several OpenAI gym robotic arm and hand manipulation tasks against a number of baseline models. Experimental results show that our method is comparable to that directly trained with expert demonstrations, and superior to the other baselines even without any human priors.


Learning Self-Imitating Diverse Policies    

tl;dr Policy optimization by using past good rollouts from the agent; learning shaped rewards via divergence minimization; SVPG with JS-kernel for population-based exploration.

The success of popular algorithms for deep reinforcement learning, such as policy-gradients and Q-learning, relies heavily on the availability of an informative reward signal at each timestep of the sequential decision-making process. When rewards are only sparsely available during an episode, or a rewarding feedback is provided only after episode termination, these algorithms perform sub-optimally due to the difficultly in credit assignment. Alternatively, trajectory-based policy optimization methods, such as cross-entropy method and evolution strategies, do not require per-timestep rewards, but have been found to suffer from high sample complexity by completing forgoing the temporal nature of the problem. Improving the efficiency of RL algorithms in real-world problems with sparse or episodic rewards is therefore a pressing need. In this work, we introduce a self-imitation learning algorithm that exploits and explores well in the sparse and episodic reward settings. We view each policy as a state-action visitation distribution and formulate policy optimization as a divergence minimization problem. We show that with Jensen-Shannon divergence, this divergence minimization problem can be reduced into a policy-gradient algorithm with shaped rewards learned from experience replays. Experimental results indicate that our algorithm works comparable to existing algorithms in environments with dense rewards, and significantly better in environments with sparse and episodic rewards. We then discuss limitations of self-imitation learning, and propose to solve them by using Stein variational policy gradient descent with the Jensen-Shannon kernel to learn multiple diverse policies. We demonstrate its effectiveness on a number of challenging tasks.


Information asymmetry in KL-regularized RL    

tl;dr Limiting state information for the default policy can improvement performance, in a KL-regularized RL framework where both agent and default policy are optimized together

Many real world tasks exhibit rich structure that is repeated across different parts of the state space or in time. In this work we study the possibility of leveraging such repeated structure to speed up and regularize learning. We start from the KL regularized expected reward objective which introduces an additional component, a default policy. Instead of relying on a fixed default policy, we learn it from data. But crucially, we restrict the amount of information the default policy receives, forcing it to learn reusable behaviors that help the policy learn faster. We formalize this strategy and discuss connections to information bottleneck approaches and to the variational EM algorithm. We present empirical results in both discrete and continuous action domains and demonstrate that, for certain tasks, learning a default policy alongside the policy can significantly speed up and improve learning. Please watch the video demonstrating learned experts and default policies on several continuous control tasks ( https://youtu.be/U2qA3llzus8 ).


Exploiting Environmental Variation to Improve Policy Robustness in Reinforcement Learning    

tl;dr By formulating the learning curriculum as a bandit problem, we present a principled approach to motivating policy robustness in continuous controls tasks.

Conventional reinforcement learning rarely considers how the physical variations in the environment (eg. mass, drag, etc.) affect the policy learned by the agent. In this paper, we explore how changes in the environment affect policy generalization. We observe experimentally that, for each task we considered, there exists an optimal environment setting that results in the most robust policy that generalizes well to future environments. We propose a novel method to exploit this observation to develop robust actor policies, by automatically developing a sampling curriculum over environment settings to use in training. Ours is a model-free approach and experiments demonstrate that the performance of our method is on par with the best policies found by an exhaustive grid search, while bearing a significantly lower computational cost.


Interactive Agent Modeling by Learning to Probe    

tl;dr We propose an interactive agent modeling framework by learning a probing policy to diversify task settings and to incite new behaviors of a target agent for a better modeling of the target agent.

The ability of modeling the other agents, such as understanding their intentions and skills, is essential to an agent's interactions with other agents. Conventional agent modeling relies on passive observation from demonstrations. In this work, we propose an interactive agent modeling scheme enabled by encouraging an agent to learn to probe. In particular, the probing agent (i.e. a learner) learns to interact with the environment and with a target agent (i.e., a demonstrator) to maximize the change in the observed behaviors of that agent. Through probing, rich behaviors can be observed and are used for enhancing the agent modeling to learn a more accurate mind model of the target agent. Our framework consists of two learning processes: i) imitation learning for an approximated agent model and ii) pure curiosity-driven reinforcement learning for an efficient probing policy to discover new behaviors that otherwise can not be observed. We have validated our approach in four different tasks. The experimental results suggest that the agent model learned by our approach i) generalizes better in novel scenarios than the ones learned by passive observation, random probing, and other curiosity-driven approaches do, and ii) can be used for enhancing performance in multiple applications including distilling optimal planning to a policy net, collaboration, and competition. A video demo is available at https://www.dropbox.com/s/8mz6rd3349tso67/Probing_Demo.mov?dl=0


Diversity is All You Need: Learning Skills without a Reward Function    

tl;dr We propose an algorithm for learning useful skills without a reward function, and show how these skills can be used to solve downstream tasks.

Intelligent creatures can explore their environments and learn useful skills without supervision. In this paper, we propose ``Diversity is All You Need''(DIAYN), a method for learning useful skills without a reward function. Our proposed method learns skills by maximizing an information theoretic objective using a maximum entropy policy. On a variety of simulated robotic tasks, we show that this simple objective results in the unsupervised emergence of diverse skills, such as walking and jumping. In a number of reinforcement learning benchmark environments, our method is able to learn a skill that solves the benchmark task despite never receiving the true task reward. We show how pretrained skills can provide a good parameter initialization for downstream tasks, and can be composed hierarchically to solve complex, sparse reward tasks. Our results suggest that unsupervised discovery of skills can serve as an effective pretraining mechanism for overcoming challenges of exploration and data efficiency in reinforcement learning.


DEEP ADVERSARIAL FORWARD MODEL    

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Learning world dynamics has recently been investigated as a way to make reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms to be more sample efficient and interpretable. In this paper, we propose to capture an environment dynamics with a novel forward model that leverages recent works on adversarial learning and visual control. Such a model estimates future observations conditioned on the current ones and other input variables such as actions taken by an RL-agent. We focus on image generation which is a particularly challenging topic but our method can be adapted to other modalities. More precisely, our forward model is trained to produce realistic observations of the future while a discriminator model is trained to distinguish between real images and the model’s prediction of the future. This approach overcomes the need to define an explicit loss function for the forward model which is currently used for solving such a class of problem. As a consequence, our learning protocol does not have to rely on an explicit distance such as Euclidean distance which tends to produce unsatisfactory predictions. To illustrate our method, empirical qualitative and quantitative results are presented on a real driving scenario, along with qualitative results on Atari game Frostbite.


Episodic Curiosity through Reachability    

tl;dr We propose a novel model of curiosity based on episodic memory and the ideas of reachability which allows us to overcome the known "couch-potato" issues of prior work.

Rewards are sparse in the real world and most today's reinforcement learning algorithms struggle with such sparsity. One solution to this problem is to allow the agent to create rewards for itself --- thus making rewards dense and more suitable for learning. In particular, inspired by curious behaviour in animals, observing something novel could be rewarded with a bonus. Such bonus is summed up with the real task reward --- making it possible for RL algorithms to learn from the combined reward. We propose a new curiosity method which uses episodic memory to form the novelty bonus. To determine the bonus, the current observation is compared with the observations in memory. Crucially, the comparison is done based on how many environment steps it takes to reach the current observation from those in memory --- which incorporates rich information about environment dynamics. This allows us to overcome the known "couch-potato" issues of prior work --- when the agent finds a way to instantly gratify itself by exploiting actions which lead to unpredictable consequences. We test our approach in visually rich 3D environments in ViZDoom and DMLab. In ViZDoom, our agent learns to successfully navigate to a distant goal at least 2 times faster than the state-of-the-art curiosity method ICM. In DMLab, our agent generalizes well to new procedurally generated levels of the game --- reaching the goal at least 2 times more frequently than ICM on test mazes with very sparse reward.


Purchase as Reward : Session-based Recommendation by Imagination Reconstruction    

tl;dr We propose the IRN architecture to augment sparse and delayed purchase reward for session-based recommendation.

One of the key challenges of session-based recommender systems is to enhance users’ purchase intentions. In this paper, we formulate the sequential interactions between user sessions and a recommender agent as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). In practice, the purchase reward is delayed and sparse, and may be buried by clicks, making it an impoverished signal for policy learning. Inspired by the prediction error minimization (PEM) and embodied cognition, we propose a simple architecture to augment reward, namely Imagination Reconstruction Network (IRN). Specifically, IRN enables the agent to explore its environment and learn predictive representations via three key components. The imagination core generates predicted trajectories, i.e., imagined items that users may purchase. The trajectory manager controls the granularity of imagined trajectories using the planning strategies, which balances the long-term rewards and short-term rewards. To optimize the action policy, the imagination-augmented executor minimizes the intrinsic imagination error of simulated trajectories by self-supervised reconstruction, while maximizing the extrinsic reward using model-free algorithms. Empirically, IRN promotes quicker adaptation to user interest, and shows improved robustness to the cold-start scenario and ultimately higher purchase performance compared to several baselines. Somewhat surprisingly, IRN using only the purchase reward achieves excellent next-click prediction performance, demonstrating that the agent can "guess what you like" via internal planning.


Modeling the Long Term Future in Model-Based Reinforcement Learning    

tl;dr incorporating, in the model, latent variables that encode future content improves the long-term prediction accuracy, which is critical for better planning in model-based RL.

In model-based reinforcement learning, the agent interleaves between model learning and planning. These two components are inextricably intertwined. If the model is not able to provide sensible long-term prediction, the executed planer would exploit model flaws, which can yield catastrophic failures. This paper focuses on building a model that reasons about the long-term future and demonstrates how to use this for efficient planning and exploration. To this end, we build a latent-variable autoregressive model by leveraging recent ideas in variational inference. We argue that forcing latent variables to carry future information through an auxiliary task substantially improves long-term predictions. Moreover, by planning in the latent space, the planner's solution is ensured to be within regions where the model is valid. An exploration strategy can be devised by searching for unlikely trajectories under the model. Our methods achieves higher reward faster compared to baselines on a variety of tasks and environments in both the imitation learning and model-based reinforcement learning settings.


Curiosity-Driven Experience Prioritization via Density Estimation    

tl;dr Our paper proposes a curiosity-driven prioritization framework for RL agents, which improves both performance and sample-efficiency.

In Reinforcement Learning (RL), an agent explores the environment and collects trajectories into the memory buffer for later learning. However, the collected trajectories can easily be imbalanced with respect to the achieved goal states. The problem of learning from imbalanced data is a well-known problem in supervised learning, but has not yet been thoroughly researched in RL. To address this problem, we propose a novel Curiosity-Driven Prioritization (CDP) framework to encourage the agent to over-sample those trajectories that have rare achieved goal states. The CDP framework mimics the human learning process and focuses more on relatively uncommon events. We evaluate our methods using the robotic environment provided by OpenAI Gym. The environment contains six robot manipulation tasks. In our experiments, we combined CDP with Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) with or without Hindsight Experience Replay (HER). The experimental results show that CDP improves both performance and sample-efficiency of reinforcement learning agents, compared to state-of-the-art methods.


Learning Physics Priors for Deep Reinforcement Learing    

tl;dr We propose a new approach to pre-train a physics prior from raw videos and incorporate it into an RL framework that allows for better learning and efficient generalization.

While model-based deep reinforcement learning (RL) holds great promise for sample efficiency and generalization, learning an accurate dynamics model is challenging and often requires substantial interactions with the environment. Further, a wide variety of domains have dynamics that share common foundations like the laws of physics, which are rarely exploited by these algorithms. Humans often acquire such physics priors that allow us to easily adapt to the dynamics of any environment. In this work, we propose an approach to learn such physics priors and incorporate them into an RL agent. Our method involves pre-training a frame predictor on raw videos and then using it to initialize the dynamics prediction model on a target task. Our prediction model, SpatialNet, is designed to implicitly capture localized physical phenomena and interactions. We show the value of incorporating this prior through empirical experiments on two different domains – a newly created PhysWorld and games from the Atari benchmark, outperforming competitive approaches and demonstrating effective transfer learning.


Beyond Games: Bringing Exploration to Robots in Real-world    

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Exploration has been a long standing problem in both model-based and model-free learning methods for sensorimotor control. While there has been major advances over the years, most of these successes have been demonstrated in either video games or simulation environments. This is primarily because the rewards (even the intrinsic ones) are non-differentiable since they are function of the environment (which is a black-box). In this paper, we focus on the policy optimization aspect of the intrinsic reward function. Specifically, by using a local approximation, we formulate intrinsic reward as a differentiable function so as to perform policy optimization using likelihood maximization -- much like supervised learning instead of reinforcement learning. This leads to a significantly sample efficient exploration policy. Our experiments clearly show that our approach outperforms both on-policy and off-policy optimization approaches like REINFORCE and DQN respectively. But most importantly, we are able to implement an exploration policy on a robot which learns to interact with objects completely from scratch just using data collected via the differentiable exploration module.


Stable Opponent Shaping in Differentiable Games    

tl;dr Opponent shaping is a powerful approach to multi-agent learning but can prevent convergence; our SOS algorithm fixes this with strong guarantees in all differentiable games.

A growing number of learning methods are actually games which optimise multiple, interdependent objectives in parallel -- from GANs and intrinsic curiosity to multi-agent RL. Opponent shaping is a powerful approach to improve learning dynamics in such games, accounting for the fact that the 'environment' includes agents adapting to one another's updates. Learning with Opponent-Learning Awareness (LOLA) is a recent algorithm which exploits this dynamic response and encourages cooperation in settings like the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. Although experimentally successful, we show that LOLA can exhibit 'arrogant' behaviour directly at odds with convergence. In fact, remarkably few algorithms have theoretical guarantees applying across all differentiable games. In this paper we present Stable Opponent Shaping (SOS), a new method that interpolates between LOLA and a stable variant named LookAhead. We prove that LookAhead locally converges and avoids strict saddles in all differentiable games, the strongest results in the field so far. SOS inherits these desirable guarantees, while also shaping the learning of opponents and consistently either matching or outperforming LOLA experimentally.


Learning Exploration Policies for Navigation    

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Numerous past works have tackled the problem of task-driven navigation. But, how to effectively explore a new environment to enable a variety of down-stream tasks has received much less attention. In this work, we study how agents can autonomously explore realistic and complex 3D environments without the context of task-rewards. We propose a learning-based approach and investigate different policy architectures, reward functions, and training paradigms. We find that use of policies with spatial memory that are bootstrapped with imitation learning and finally finetuned with coverage rewards derived purely from on-board sensors can be effective at exploring novel environments. We show that our learned exploration policies can explore better than classical approaches based on geometry alone and generic learning-based exploration techniques. Finally, we also show how such task-agnostic exploration can be used for down-stream tasks. Videos are available at https://sites.google.com/view/exploration-for-nav/.


Visceral Machines: Reinforcement Learning with Intrinsic Physiological Rewards    

tl;dr We present a novel approach to reinforcement learning that leverages a task-independent intrinsic reward function trained on peripheral pulse measurements that are correlated with human autonomic nervous system responses.

The human autonomic nervous system has evolved over millions of years and is essential for survival and responding to threats. As people learn to navigate the world, ``fight or flight'' responses provide intrinsic feedback about the potential consequence of action choices (e.g., becoming nervous when close to a cliff edge or driving fast around a bend.) Physiological changes are correlated with these biological preparations to protect one-self from danger. We present a novel approach to reinforcement learning that leverages a task-independent intrinsic reward function trained on peripheral pulse measurements that are correlated with human autonomic nervous system responses. Our hypothesis is that such reward functions can circumvent the challenges associated with sparse and skewed rewards in reinforcement learning settings and can help improve sample efficiency. We test this in a simulated driving environment and show that it can increase the speed of learning and reduce the number of collisions during the learning stage.


Exploration by Uncertainty in Reward Space    

tl;dr Exploration by Uncertainty in Reward Space

Efficient exploration plays a key role in reinforcement learning tasks. Commonly used dithering strategies, such as-greedy, try to explore the action-state space randomly; this can lead to large demand for samples. In this paper, We propose an exploration method based on the uncertainty in reward space. There are two policies in this approach, the exploration policy is used for exploratory sampling in the environment, then the benchmark policy try to update by the data proven by the exploration policy. Benchmark policy is used to provide the uncertainty in reward space, e.g. td-error, which guides the exploration policy updating. We apply our method on two grid-world environments and four Atari games. Experiment results show that our method improves learning speed and have a better performance than baseline policies


Quantile Regression Reinforcement Learning with State Aligned Vector Rewards    

tl;dr We train with state aligned vector rewards an agent predicting state changes from action distributions, using a new reinforcement learning technique inspired by quantile regression.

Learning from a scalar reward in continuous action space environments is difficult and often requires millions if not billions of interactions. We introduce state aligned vector rewards, which are easily defined in metric state spaces and allow our deep reinforcement learning agent to tackle the curse of dimensionality. Our agent learns to map from action distributions to state change distributions implicitly defined in a quantile function neural network. We further introduce a new reinforcement learning technique inspired by quantile regression which does not limit agents to explicitly parameterized action distributions. Our results in high dimensional state spaces show that training with vector rewards allows our agent to learn multiple times faster than an agent training with scalar rewards.


Large-Scale Study of Curiosity-Driven Learning    

tl;dr An agent trained only with curiosity, and no extrinsic reward, does surprisingly well on 54 popular environments, including the suite of Atari games, Mario etc.

Reinforcement learning algorithms rely on carefully engineered rewards from the environment that are extrinsic to the agent. However, annotating each environment with hand-designed, dense rewards is difficult and not scalable, motivating the need for developing reward functions that are intrinsic to the agent. Curiosity is such intrinsic reward function which uses prediction error as a reward signal. In this paper: (a) We perform the first large-scale study of purely curiosity-driven learning, i.e. {\em without any extrinsic rewards}, across $54$ standard benchmark environments, including the Atari game suite. Our results show surprisingly good performance as well as a high degree of alignment between the intrinsic curiosity objective and the hand-designed extrinsic rewards of many games. (b) We investigate the effect of using different feature spaces for computing prediction error and show that random features are sufficient for many popular RL game benchmarks, but learned features appear to generalize better (e.g. to novel game levels in Super Mario Bros.). (c) We demonstrate limitations of the prediction-based rewards in stochastic setups. Game-play videos and code are at https://doubleblindsupplementary.github.io/large-curiosity/.


Transfer and Exploration via the Information Bottleneck    

tl;dr Training agents with goal-policy information bottlenecks promotes transfer and yields a powerful exploration bonus

A central challenge in reinforcement learning is discovering effective policies for tasks where rewards are sparsely distributed. We postulate that in the absence of useful reward signals, an effective exploration strategy should seek out {\it decision states}. These states lie at critical junctions in the state space from where the agent can transition to new, potentially unexplored regions. We propose to learn about decision states from prior experience. By training a goal-conditioned model with an information bottleneck, we can identify decision states by examining where the model accesses the goal state through the bottleneck. We find that this simple mechanism effectively identifies decision states, even in partially observed settings. In effect, the model learns the sensory cues that correlate with potential subgoals. In new environments, this model can then identify novel subgoals for further exploration, guiding the agent through a sequence of potential decision states and through new regions of the state space.


NADPEx: An on-policy temporally consistent exploration method for deep reinforcement learning    

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Reinforcement learning agents need exploratory behaviors to escape from local optima. These behaviors may include both immediate dithering perturbation and temporally consistent exploration. To achieve these, a stochastic policy model that is inherently consistent through a period of time is in desire, especially for tasks with either sparse rewards or long term information. In this work, we introduce a novel on-policy temporally consistent exploration strategy - Neural Adaptive Dropout Policy Exploration (NADPEx) - for deep reinforcement learning agents. Modeled as a global random variable for conditional distribution, dropout is incorporated to reinforcement learning policies, equipping them with inherent temporal consistency, even when the reward signals are sparse. Two factors, gradients' alignment with the objective and KL constraint in policy space, are discussed to guarantee NADPEx policy's stable improvement. Our experiments demonstrate that NADPEx solves tasks with sparse reward while naive exploration and parameter noise fail. It yields as well or even faster convergence in the standard mujoco benchmark for continuous control.


Q-map: a Convolutional Approach for Goal-Oriented Reinforcement Learning    

tl;dr Q-map is a reinforcement learning agent that uses a convolutional autoencoder-like architecture to efficiently learn to navigate its environment.

Goal-oriented learning has become a core concept in the reinforcement learning (RL) framework, extending the reward signal as a sole way to define tasks. Generalized value functions (GVFs) utilize an array of independent value functions, each trained for a specific goal, while universal value function approximators (UVFAs) enable generalization between goals by providing them in input. As parameterizing value functions with goals increases the learning complexity, efficiently reusing past experience to update estimates towards several goals at once becomes desirable, but requires independent updates per goal for both GVFs and UVFAs. Considering that a significant number of RL environments can support spatial coordinates as goals - such as on-screen location of the character in ATARI or SNES games, we propose a novel goal-oriented agent called Q-map that utilizes an autoencoder-like neural network to predict the minimum number of steps towards each coordinate in a single forward pass. This architecture is similar to Horde with parameter sharing and allows the agent to discover correlations between visual patterns and navigation. For example learning how to use a ladder in a game could be transferred to other ladders later. We show how this network can be efficiently trained with a 3D variant of Q-learning to update the estimates towards all goals at once. While the Q-map agent could be used for a wide range of applications, we propose a novel exploration mechanism in place of epsilon-greedy that relies on goal selection at a predicted target distance followed by several steps taken towards it, thus allowing the agent to take much longer and coherent exploratory steps in the environment. We demonstrate the accuracy and generalization qualities of the Q-map agent on a grid-world environment and then demonstrate how the proposed exploration mechanism allows the agent to explore much further than random walks on the notoriously difficult Montezuma's Revenge game and finally show how the combination of Q-map with a task-learner DQN agent improves the performance on the Super Mario All-Stars game.


Environment Probing Interaction Policies    

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A key challenge in reinforcement learning (RL) is environment generalization: a policy trained to solve a task in one environment often fails to solve the same task in a slightly different test environment. A common approach to improve inter-environment transfer is to learn policies that are invariant to the distribution of testing environments. However, we argue that instead of being invariant, the policy should identify the specific nuances of an environment and exploit them to achieve better performance. In this work, we propose the “Environment-Probing” Interaction (EPI) policy, a policy that probes a new environment to extract an implicit understanding of that environment’s behavior. Once this environment-specific information is obtained, it is used as an additional input to a task-specific policy that can now perform environment-conditioned actions to solve a task. To learn these EPI-policies, we present a reward function based on transition predictability. Specifically, a higher reward is given if the trajectory generated by the EPI-policy can be used to better predict transitions. We experimentally show that EPI-conditioned task-specific policies significantly outperform commonly used policy generalization methods on novel testing environments.