Search ICLR 2019

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"self-regularization" has 5 results

SGD Converges to Global Minimum in Deep Learning via Star-convex Path    

No tl;dr =[

Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) has been found to be surprisingly effective in training a variety of deep neural networks. However, there is still a lack of understanding on how and why SGD can train these complex networks towards a global minimum. In this study, we establish the convergence of SGD to a global minimum for nonconvex optimization problems that are commonly encountered in neural network training. Our argument exploits the following two important properties: 1) the training loss can achieve zero value (approximately), which has been widely observed in deep learning; 2) SGD follows a star-convex path, which is verified by various experiments in this paper. In such a context, our analysis shows that SGD, although has long been considered as a randomized algorithm, converges in an intrinsically deterministic manner to a global minimum.

Local Image-to-Image Translation via Pixel-wise Highway Adaptive Instance Normalization    

No tl;dr =[

Recently, image-to-image translation has seen a significant success. Among them, image translation based on an exemplar image, which contains the target style information, has been popular, owing to its capability to handle multimodality as well as its suitability for practical use. However, most of the existing methods extract the style information from an entire exemplar and apply it to the entire input image, which introduces excessive image translation in irrelevant image regions. In response, this paper proposes a novel approach that jointly extracts out the local masks of the input image and the exemplar as targeted regions to be involved for image translation. In particular, the main novelty of our model lies in (1) co-segmentation networks for local mask generation and (2) the local mask-based highway adaptive instance normalization technique. We demonstrate the quantitative and the qualitative evaluation results to show the advantages of our proposed approach. Finally, our code is available at

Traditional and Heavy Tailed Self Regularization in Neural Network Models    

tl;dr See the abstract.

Random Matrix Theory (RMT) is applied to analyze the weight matrices of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), including both production quality, pre-trained models such as AlexNet and Inception, and smaller models trained from scratch, such as LeNet5 and a miniature-AlexNet. Empirical and theoretical results clearly indicate that the empirical spectral density (ESD) of DNN layer matrices displays signatures of traditionally-regularized statistical models, even in the absence of exogenously specifying traditional forms of regularization, such as Dropout or Weight Norm constraints. Building on recent results in RMT, most notably its extension to Universality classes of Heavy-Tailed matrices, we develop a theory to identify 5+1 Phases of Training, corresponding to increasing amounts of Implicit Self-Regularization. For smaller and/or older DNNs, this Implicit Self-Regularization is like traditional Tikhonov regularization, in that there is a "size scale" separating signal from noise. For state-of-the-art DNNs, however, we identify a novel form of Heavy-Tailed Self-Regularization, similar to the self-organization seen in the statistical physics of disordered systems. This implicit Self-Regularization can depend strongly on the many knobs of the training process. By exploiting the generalization gap phenomena, we demonstrate that we can cause a small model to exhibit all 5+1 phases of training simply by changing the batch size.

Alignment Based Mathching Networks for One-Shot Classification and Open-Set Recognition    

No tl;dr =[

Deep learning for object classification relies heavily on convolutional models. While effective, CNNs are rarely interpretable after the fact. An attention mechanism can be used to highlight the area of the image that the model focuses on thus offering a narrow view into the mechanism of classification. We expand on this idea by forcing the method to explicitly align images to be classified to reference images representing the classes. The mechanism of alignment is learned and therefore does not require that the reference objects are anything like those being classified. Beyond explanation, our exemplar based cross-alignment method enables classification with only a single example per category (one-shot). Our model cuts the 5-way, 1-shot error rate in Omniglot from 2.1\% to 1.4\% and in MiniImageNet from 53.5\% to 46.5\% while simultaneously providing point-wise alignment information providing some understanding on what the network is capturing. This method of alignment also enables the recognition of an unsupported class (open-set) in the one-shot setting while maintaining an F1-score of above 0.5 for Omniglot even with 19 other distracting classes while baselines completely fail to separate the open-set class in the one-shot setting.

Show, Attend and Translate: Unsupervised Image Translation with Self-Regularization and Attention    

tl;dr We propose a simple generative model for unsupervised image translation and saliency detection.

Image translation between two domains is a class of problems aiming to learn mapping from an input image in the source domain to an output image in the target domain. It has been applied to numerous applications, such as data augmentation, domain adaptation, and unsupervised training. When paired training data is not accessible, image translation becomes an ill-posed problem. We constrain the problem with the assumption that the translated image needs to be perceptually similar to the original image and also appears to be drawn from the new domain, and propose a simple yet effective image translation model consisting of a single generator trained with a self-regularization term and an adversarial term. We further notice that existing image translation techniques are agnostic to the subjects of interest and often introduce unwanted changes or artifacts to the input. Thus we propose to add an attention module to predict an attention map to guide the image translation process. The module learns to attend to key parts of the image while keeping everything else unaltered, essentially avoiding undesired artifacts or changes. The predicted attention map also opens door to applications such as unsupervised segmentation and saliency detection. Extensive experiments and evaluations show that our model while being simpler, achieves significantly better performance than existing image translation methods.